Handbook For Electricity Metering
This also has the responsibility of communication using various protocols and interface with other addon modules connected as slaves to it. This edition also contains chapters on mathematics, electrical theory, and basic electronics as an introduction to the operation and practical application of metering devices. Electrical and electronic measuring equipment.
Industrial power is normally supplied as three phase power. When incorporated into an electrical meter, the relay changes state with each rotation or half rotation of the meter disc. The company responsible for reading the meter may not always be the company which owns it.
Many electricity customers are installing their own electricity generating equipment, whether for reasons of economy, redundancy or environmental reasons. In North America, it is common for electricity meters to plug into a standardised socket outdoors, on the side of a building. This indicates that different metering is needed, for example, for a three-phase three-wire system than for a three-phase four-wire with neutral system. Readers will gain an invaluable understanding of the environment of smart metering system platforms from an international perspective. Even if an earth ground is safe, metering at the substation can alert the operator to tampering.
Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. This is because most electricity grids have demand surges throughout the day, and the power company may wish to give price incentives to large customers to reduce demand at these times. Recently, low-cost energy feedback displays have become available. With the dial pointer type, adjacent pointers generally rotate in opposite directions due to the gearing mechanism. An electronic meter can transmit its readings by telephone line or radio to a central billing office.
Single phase distribution is less-expensive, because one set of transformers in a substation normally serve a large area with relatively high voltages usually V and no local transformers. Volt-amperes measures all power passed through a distribution network, including reactive and actual. This meter overcame the disadvantages of the electrochemical type and could operate on either alternating or direct current. This allows multiple top-up boosts to storage heaters, or a good spread of times to run a wet electric heating system on a cheaper electricity rate. The Smart Meters and Customers section assesses how smart meters enable the customers to interact with the power grid.
Investor-Owned Electric Companies. Electric Perspectives Magazine. Web resources can also be used, if an estimate of the power consumption is enough for the research purposes.
At the same time, the entire format of the handbook will be streamlined, removing archaic sections and providing a quick, easy look-up experience. In principle, a sealed time switch can also be used, celine dion music albums but is considered more vulnerable to tampering to obtain cheaper electricity.
Powering Up Resource Center. These were dependent upon the supply voltage remaining constant for accurate measurement of energy usage, which was not a likely circumstance with most supplies. Electricity retailers may wish to charge customers different tariffs at different times of the day to better reflect the costs of generation and transmission. In some areas the meter is outside, often on a utility pole. It eliminates the need to put timers on all of the appliances in a house to determine how much energy each uses.
The most common schemes seem to combine an existing national standard for data e. Most split-phase residential meters in the United States are unable to detect neutral currents.
Another potential upload source that has been proposed is plug-in hybrid car batteries vehicle-to-grid power systems. There are a variety of models available on the market today but they all work on the same basic principle. This is common in large installations. Nonintrusive load monitoring gives even more detail about what appliances people have and their living and use patterns. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article.
Vision and Drivers covers the vision, definitions, evolution, and global development of the smart grid as well as new technologies and standards. Some utilities allow residential customers to pay hourly rates, such as in Illinois, which uses day ahead pricing. The plug is often near a more easily accessible point.
Newer computerised meters usually have counter-measures against tampering. Some meters measured only the length of time for which charge flowed, with no measurement of the magnitude of voltage or current being made. Cables are connected directly to the meter. The change to smart power meters is useful to stop energy theft. Generation, transmission, distribution, operation, system protection, and switchgear are thoroughly explained.
This load profile data is processed at the utilities for billing and planning purposes. This requires the customer to make advance payment before electricity can be used. Washington Representatives. In others, it is inside the building in a niche. These investigations are an effective method to discover tampering.
All of these effects can be detected by the electric company, and many modern meters can detect or compensate for them. Magnets can also saturate current transformers or power-supply transformers in electronic meters, though countermeasures are common.
Demand is normally measured in watts, but averaged over a period, most often a quarter- or half-hour. Testimony, Filings, and Briefs. In regions that mix residences and light industry, it is common for this to be the only distribution method. The meters can now store the entire usage profiles with time stamps and relay them at a click of a button. The equilibrium between these two opposing forces results in the disc rotating at a speed proportional to the power or rate of energy usage.
Also, in some areas meters have relays for demand response load shedding during peak load periods. The demand readings stored with the profiles accurately indicate the load requirements of the customer. This contrasts with gas meters where if a meter is found to be under reading, it is assumed that it has under read for as long as the consumer has had a gas supply through it.
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The accuracy is generally laid down in statute for the location in which the meter is installed. This is equal to the product of root-mean-square volts and amperes. These demand surges often correspond to meal times or, famously, to advertisements interrupting popular television programmes. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.
These are usually industrial meters. In Europe, Asia, Africa and most other locations, single phase is common for residential and small commercial customers. As current was drawn from the supply, electrochemical action transferred the mercury to the bottom of the column. Current harmonics are a measure of distortion of the wave form.
Some combinations of capacitive and inductive load can interact with the coils and mass of a rotor and cause reduced or reverse motion. Volume one of the Fifth Edition, Measurement and Safety, covers safety sensors and the detectors of physical properties.
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